What are the types of dental implants?
Historically, there have been two different types of dental implants:
- endosteal and
- subperiosteal. Endosteal refers to an implant that is “in the bone,” and subperiosteal refers to an implant that rests on top of the jawbone under the gum tissue. Subperiosteal implants are no longer in use today because of their poor long-term results in comparison to endosteal dental implants.
While the primary function of dental implants is for teeth replacement, there are areas in which implants can assist in other dental procedures. Due to their stability, dental implants can be used to support a removable denture and provide a more secure and comfortable fit. In addition, for orthodontics procedures, dental mini-implants can act as temporary anchorage devices (TAD) to help move teeth to a desired position. These mini-implants are small and temporarily fixed to bone while assisting in anchorage for teeth movement. They are subsequently removed after their function has been served.
For patients who have lost all their teeth due to decay or gum disease of the upper and/or lower arch, an option is available to provide a very stable and comfortable prosthesis using a minimal number of implants. One such is example is the “All-On-4” technique that was named by implant manufacturer Nobel Biocare. This technique gets its name from the idea that four implants can be used to replace all teeth in a single arch (upper or lower). The implants are strategically placed in areas of good strong bone, and a thin denture prosthesis is screwed into place. The All-On-4 technique provides teeth replacement that is stable (not removable) and feels like natural teeth compared to the older method of traditional (removable) complete dentures. Without a doubt, implant dentistry has allowed for more treatment options to replace single and multiple missing teeth with long-term stability and contributes to improved oral health.